When Did The Uae Gain Independence From Britain?

When Did The Uae Gain Independence From Britain
The United States of America acknowledged the independence of the United Arab Emirates in 1971. – On December 2, 1971, following the conclusion of treaties with Great Britain, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) proclaimed their independence. On December 3, the United States officially acknowledged the United Arab Emirates after doing so the previous day.

Was the UAE a British colony?

This page is about “Trucial Oman,” which has moved. See the article on the British Protectorate of Muscat and Oman for further information.

Trucial States إمارات الساحل المتصالح ( Arabic )
Flag of the Trucial States Council (1968–1971)
The Trucial States in 1867
Status Persian Gulf Residency of British India (1820–1947) British Protectorate (1947–1971)
Capital Sharjah
Common languages Arabic English
Religion Sunni Islam
Demonym(s) Trucials
Government Tribal confederation (s)
Historical era New Imperialism to Cold War
• General Maritime Treaty 8 January 1820
• Perpetual Maritime Truce 4 May 1853
• Trucial States Council 21 March 1952
• End of protectorate 1 December 1971
• United Arab Emirates 2 December 1971
Currency Ottoman Lira (1820–1899) Indian Rupee (1899–1959) Gulf Rupee (1959–1966) Bahraini Dinar (1966–1971)


Preceded by Succeeded by


Abu Dhabi Ajman Dubai Umm Al Quwain Fujairah Ras Al Khaimah Sharjah


United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khaimah


table> Today part of United Arab Emirates

The Trucial States (Arabic: Al-Imrt al-Mutalia), also known as the Trucial Coast (Arabic: Al-Sil al-Mutali), the Trucial Sheikhdoms (Arabic: Al-Mashkhat al-Mutali), Trucial Arabia or Trucial Oman, was the name the British government gave to a group Prior to the revocation of the treaties on December 1, 1971, the Trucial States continued to function as an unofficial protectorate of the United Kingdom.

Who owned UAE before 1971?

Independence Day was celebrated on December 2, 1971. The six emirates that were willing to become members of the federation were Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ajman, Al Fujayrah, and Sharjah. Quwayn also joined. On December 2, 1971, the six emirates made a public declaration of their independence from Britain and chose the name United Arab Emirates for their new nation.

  • (Ras al Khaymah initially chose not to participate in the federation; nevertheless, they did finally join in February 1972).
  • The first president of the union was Sheikh Zaid ben Sultan, the Emir of Abu Dhabi, which is the richest of the seven emirates.
  • He was succeeded as president by Sheikh Rashid ben Saeed of Dubai, which is the second-richest emirate.

Both Abu Dhabi and Dubai have oil deposits in their territories. The emirates that remain in the region do not. A contract of goodwill was formed between the union and Britain, and the union said that it was a part of the Arab Nation. It was in no way democratic, and competition amongst the Emirates did not halt throughout this time.

The union was governed by a council that initially consisted of 15 members but was later reduced to seven so that each of the emirs who were not elected may have their own seat. Twenty members of the 40-member Federal National Council are chosen to serve two-year terms by 6,689 Emiratis, including 1,189 women, who are all appointed by seven emirs.

Half of the members of the Federal National Council are selected by the seven emirs. In the Emirates, there are neither free elections nor political parties of any kind.

How many years ago was UAE independence?

Emirates of the United Arab League

United Arab Emirates الإمارات العربية المتحدة (Arabic) al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabīyah al-Muttaḥidah
Fujairah 1879
Independence from the United Kingdom and the Trucial States 2 December 1971
Admitted to the United Nations 9 December 1971
Admission of Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah to the UAE 10 February 1972

How long did British rule UAE?

The Foundation of the Trucial States – After the Qawasims were vanquished, the British negotiated and signed a number of treaties and accords with the sheikhs of the several emirates between the years 1820 and 1853. According to the terms of these agreements, the sheikhs were required to maintain peace at sea, and they were prohibited from constructing huge ships or establishing fortifications along the shore.

  • However, frequent hostilities at sea between the various Arab tribes were commonplace.
  • The sheikhs were bound, once again, by the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace, which was signed in 1853.
  • This treaty obliged the sheikhs to a full halt of warfare at sea and a flawless maritime ceasefire forever.
  • Due to the fact that the British government did not intend to become involved in the internal issues of the emirates, its engagement was restricted to marine security alone.

Because of this chain of agreements, the region is now commonly referred to as the “Trucial States” or the “Trucial Coast.” Maintaining the dominance of the British The British maintained their control over the Trucial States throughout their rule. In 1892, they entered into Exclusive Agreements with the Trucial States.

  1. As a result of these agreements, the Trucial States were barred from disposing of any of their territories to anyone other than the United Kingdom and were also prohibited from forming any kind of relationship with a foreign government without first obtaining permission from the United Kingdom.
  2. In exchange, the British agreed to protect the emirates from any land or sea-based attacks launched by hostile nations.

The British continued their rule over the territory for the following seventy-five or so years, during which time their interest in the region expanded beyond its previous link to India. Their previous strategy of remaining neutral in the internal affairs of the emirates was abandoned.

These were done for a variety of reasons, one of which being the possibility of finding oil. As a result of the British ensuring that they would maintain control over the granting of oil concessions and that no banking concessions would be granted to foreigners (out of fear of interference from other foreign powers), the Trucial States were forced to determine the boundaries between their individual emirates.

As a consequence of this, in the 1950s the British government became involved in the process of delineating the limits of the Trucial States in order to meet the requirements of the oil corporations that were conducting exploration within the interior of the country.

At the beginning of 1968, the British government announced that they planned to pull out of the Gulf region by the end of 1971. This decision was made for a number of economic reasons, including the fall in value of the British pound, the pressure to reduce spending on defense as a result of criticism from the Labour party, the inability to maintain British servicemen overseas, and the inability to invest in social services at home and in infrastructure in the UAE.

When the British pulled out of the Trucial States on November 30, 1971, it marked the end of a period in which the region was dominated by the British. It is notable that the Trucial States were the first Arab region into which Britain expanded her jurisdiction in the year 1820 and the final area in which she ceded control in the year 1971.

Why did the British leave the UAE?

The British government reached the judgment that it could no longer afford to rule what is now known as the United Arab Emirates in 1966, which led to the departure of British forces from the region. In the course of the lengthy discussion that took place in the British parliament, a number of members of parliament argued that the Royal Navy would be unable of protecting the Trucial Sheikhdoms.

It was reported by Denis Healey, who was serving as the Secretary of State for Defense of the United Kingdom at the time, that the British Armed Forces were dangerously under-equipped and severely overextended to defend the Sheikhdoms. In some respects, the British Armed Forces were severely overextended.

Harold Wilson, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, made the decision to sever treaty ties with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms on January 16, 1968. These sheikhdoms, along with Bahrain and Qatar, had been under British protection. Edward Heath, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, reiterated the decision to withdraw from the conflict in March 1971.

  1. The area was plagued by a myriad of critical issues on both the local and regional levels.
  2. There were territorial disputes between Qatar and Bahrain over Zubarah and the Hawar Islands, and the Buraimi dispute was still unresolved between Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, and Oman.
  3. Iran had claims over Bahrain and other islands in the Gulf.

Qatar and Bahrain had territorial disputes over Zubarah and the Hawar Islands. On the subject of the intentions of the shah of Iran, there are contrasting points of view: Abdullah Omran Taryam claims that Iran was considering the occupation of Bahrain and other islands in the Gulf, whereas Alvandi Roham writes that the shah had no intention of using force to resolve the Bahrain question and was seeking a “package deal” with Great Britain over the Tunb Islands and Abu Musa, which was turned down.

Abdullah Omran Taryam’s statement is supported by The rulers of the emirates thought that Britain’s ongoing presence in the region was a true assurance of the region’s safety, and some of them really desired that Britain not withdraw from the region. In light of this, a few days after the British announced their intention to withdraw, Sheikh Zayed made an effort to convince them to honor the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of maintaining British armed forces in the Emirates.

This was done with the intention of gaining their cooperation. Despite this, the offer was declined by the Labour government of the United Kingdom.

Why Dubai is called DXB?

After Shanghai and Qingdao, this will be China Eastern’s third non-stop service to Dubai International Airport. In terms of passenger numbers, which surpassed 1.8 million in the first half of 2019, China is one of Dubai International Airport’s (DXB) most significant and among the fastest-growing destination nations.

  • Because to the comprehensive repair program that took place on one of DXB’s two runways between April 16 and May 30, the airport’s capacity was limited, which contributed to a drop in traffic of 5.6% year-on-year.
  • According to a statement that was released by DXB on Sunday, India’s GoAir completed its first trip to Dubai International Airport (DXB) on Thursday evening, departing from Kannur in the southern Indian state of Kerala.

Eugene Barry, executive vice president of commercial at Dubai Airports, stated that Dubai International Airport (DXB), which is the busiest airport in the world, could “make a concrete difference by eradicating single-use plastics.” DUBAI: The operator of Dubai’s theme parks, DXB Entertainments, reported an 11 percent decrease in the number of visitors during the first three months of 2019, but the company says it is aiming for increase in foreign tourists as it strives to break even in 2020.

WY 606 – Dubai International Airport (DXB) to Muscat International Airport (MCT) (departure: 12:50, arrival: 14:00) Millions of travelers who pass through the world’s busiest airport, Dubai International (DXB), will soon get the opportunity to experience unmatched hospitality, a culture of vibrant imagination, as well as a mesmerizing mosaic of exciting and inspiring experiences.

These experiences will range from mouth-watering cuisines to evolving retail choices, as well as world-class music and art. The agreement will highlight Dubai Airports’ efforts to make DXB a destination in its own right while simultaneously showcasing the range of offer at Dubai Parks and Resorts to the more than 88 million passengers who fly through the airport every year.

How old is UAE now?

A Fresh Start – The United Arab Emirates (UAE) had its initial geological studies carried out by oil industry teams in the early 1930s. After another 30 years, in 1962, Abu Dhabi shipped its first cargo of crude oil outside. In 1966, HH Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was selected to become the Ruler of Abu Dhabi as a result of the country’s consistently improving economy.

The consistent income from oil sales under Sheikh Zayed’s reign allowed for the modernization of Abu Dhabi’s infrastructure, which included the building of schools, residences, hospitals, and roads around the emirate. One of the first things that Sheikh Zayed did was to raise the amount of money donated to the Trucial States Development Fund, which led Abu Dhabi to become the organization’s primary contributor.

In the meantime, HH Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, who has served as the de facto ruler of Dubai since 1939, replaced the revenues from pearling by becoming involved in the shipping industry. Sheikh Rashid concentrated his attention in 1969, when the Emirate of Dubai began selling oil, on implementing initiatives that were intended at enhancing the quality of life of his people using the newly acquired income from oil exports.

Sheikh Zayed took immediate action in 1968 after the British government announced that it would be withdrawing its forces from the Arabian Gulf. His goal was to immediately develop stronger links among the Emirates. Sheikh Zayed, along with Sheikh Rashid, advocated for the establishment of a federation that would comprise not only the seven emirates that, collectively, constituted the Trucial States, but also the states of Qatar and Bahrain.

The leaders of six of the emirates (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Umm al-Quwain, and Fujairah and Ajman) came to an agreement on December 2, 1971, which led to the formal establishment of the federation that would later be known as the United Arab Emirates.

  1. The next year saw Ra’s al-Khaimah become the seventh and last emirate to join the newly formed federation.
  2. Both Qatar and Bahrain broke away to form their own independent nations.
  3. Following the establishment of the union, each of the seven Emirates has worked to develop its own unique sense of national identity.

The political system of the UAE was developed to guarantee that the country’s legacy is protected, updated, and safeguarded. This was accomplished by integrating traditional values with a contemporary organizational framework. The United Arab Emirates are considered to be a young nation because they were only established in 1971.

  1. On the other hand, evidence of human habitation in the region dates back thousands of years before the establishment of the present nation.
  2. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a long and illustrious history that can be traced back to the introduction of Islam to the region in 630 CE.
  3. The strategic location of the Emirates between Europe and Asia made them highly desirable to Europeans, notably the Portuguese, Dutch, and British.

As a result, the Emirates drew traders from both India and China. Inland, where the Europeans were focused on gaining control of the beaches, the Bedouin had already established their homes in the sandy deserts of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Abu Dhabi grew to become an important hub thanks to its location.

  • The term “The Trucial States” refers to the region that was established as a consequence of a number of agreements that were struck by the British with several Emirates in the 19th century.
  • The United Arab Emirates came to an agreement with the United Kingdom that they would not cede any territory to any other nation besides the United Kingdom and that they would not enter into any kind of relationship with any other nation’s government unless they received prior approval from the British.

In exchange, the British vowed to defend the shore against any kind of attack that came from the sea and to offer help in the case that an assault came from the land. People living in the Gulf region had a reliable source of income and employment thanks to the thriving pearling business in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Did the UK own Dubai?

History – Prior to the formation of the United Arab Emirates in 1971, each of the seven emirates that now make up the country were once independent sheikhdoms allied with the United Kingdom and were all a part of the Trucial States. The General Maritime Treaty of 1820 designated all of these sheikhdoms as British protectorates.

The primary objective of this partnership was to provide safe passage to British India by preventing the attacks by pirates along the coast of the Persian Gulf, which the nation was then located on. In 1932, the British and the Sultan of Sharjah came to an arrangement that resulted in the building of a fortified airstrip that was later given the name Al Mahatta Fort.

This was done so that Imperial Airways could make a stop there en route to Brisbane, Australia. Following that, planes belonging to the Royal Air Force were granted permission to refuel at Sharjah during World War II. The BOAC (formerly known as Imperial Airways) and other airlines used to fly into the United Arab Emirates’s first airport, which is commemorated by the Al Mahatta Museum.

  1. Additionally, the United Arab Emirates owe a great deal of its establishment to the contributions made by the United Kingdom.
  2. The territorial integrity of what would later be known as the United Arab Emirates was protected in the 1940s and 1950s by Britain’s defense of the Sheikhs of Abu Dhabi against encroachments and claims on their lands made by the King of Saudi Arabia at the time.

This helped pave the way for the formation of the UAE. In 1952, a Saudi army invaded the region that is today known as Al Ain (Buraimi on the Omani side). The British, along with the Sheikhs of Abu Dhabi and the Sultan of Oman, participated in a war known as the Buraimi Dispute to forcefully expel the Saudis from the region.

As a result of the tensions caused by the Buraimi Dispute, the Trucial Oman Scouts (also known as the Trucial Oman Levies) were established in 1951. They were a locally raised force that was commanded by the British and were responsible for maintaining security in the Emirates until the United Arab Emirates were established in December 1971, at which point they were disbanded.

The remnants of the Trucial Oman Scouts would eventually form the basis of what would eventually become the UAE Armed Forces, making the Trucial Oman Scouts an extremely important component in the process of actually becoming an autonomous military for the UAE.

Was Saudi Arabia a British colony?

Ibn Saud signed the Treaty of Darin with the British government in 1915, and as a result, Saudi Arabia accepted the role of a British protectorate. This occurred during the First World War. Relations between Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom

Saudi Arabia United Kingdom
Diplomatic mission
Embassy of Saudi Arabia, London, United Kingdom Embassy of the United Kingdom, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Was Oman a British colony?

Initial Contacts with the British
Oman had fallen under the sway of the Portugese in the year 1507. Superior naval tactics and technology helped secure control of the coast from the local leaders. The Portugese turned Oman into a crucial landing stage as part of their highly profitable Indies spice trade. The wealth and success of this trade attracted the interest of other European powers, most notably the British and Dutch, and it also spurred a local tribe to rise up and take control of their own destiny and resources. Oman’s initial contacts with the British was part of an plan to undermine the commercial and political power of the Portugese in the area. In 1646, the Al-Ya’ribi clan made overtures to the British East India Company which resulted in a treaty guaranteeing trading, religious and legal rights for British merchants operating in the Oman. The object was clearly to weaken Portugal’s control of the area. And sure enough, in 1650, Imam Sultan Bin Saif rose up against the Portugese and successfully expelled them from Muscat and Oman.
Establishment of Formal Relations
Having established favourable trading, legal and religious rights, the British East India Company didn’t think that it was necessary to establish any more formal relations with the Omanis. There was no need to do so, the Omani’s were happy to trade with the British and afford them many commercial advantages without the necessity of administrative cost or burden. This state of affairs was to remain in place until the end of the Eighteenth Century, when new strategic realities altered the balance of power in the region. The French had become the new competitors as Napoleon landed troops in Egypt and sought to challenge British commercial and political activities in the Indian sub-continent. This new threat meant that the British government (not the British East India Company) felt that it was necessary to firm up their relationship to Oman and its leaders. Two treaties were signed, one in 1798 and one in 1800. What marks these treaties apart from many similar Imperial era agreements is the amount of equality afforded by the British towards the Omani leaders. The treaties established more of a special relationship than any kind of unequal protectorate. Indeed, so successful was Oman that it had colonies of its own stretching from current day Pakistan down to the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba on the East African Coast. This gave Oman a commercial and financial freedom that other Gulf leaders could not hope to match. However, the special relationship with Britain did provide the Al Bu Sa’id leaders with concrete commercial and political advantages. The Royal Navy provided a peace that allowed trade to thrive, whilst the British Army could and did help the coastally based leaders from being overthrown by tribes from the interior. Britain augmented their formal relationship with the Omani leaders by further treaties of ‘peace, friendship and navigation’ signed in 1891, 1939 and 1951.
The Beni Boo Ali Campaign 1821
Background After the Persian Campaign of 1809-10 to eliminate pirates, the EIC shipping had enjoyed safe passage for a few years, but the trouble started again, and by 1818 there were estimated to be 7,000 pirates on 64 ships controlling the Arabian Sea from the Persian Gulf to Kathiawar and Kutch. In 1819 a force under Sir William Grant Keir captured and destroyed several criminal strongholds, leaving a Bombay regiment (1/2nd) and 8 guns on the island of Qishm. However, one tribe of miscreants was especially powerful and ferocious; they were the Beni Boo Ali (Sons of Ali), based on the eastern corner of the Arabian peninsula in the Jalan district of Oman. The Political Agent in the Gulf, Captain Thompson of the 17th Light Dragoons, naïvely assumed he could negotiate with them, and proceeded to their base on the HMS Mercury. As the sea was too choppy to launch a small boat, he sent a man who was prepared to swim ashore, probably at Al Ruwais, with a letter. The outcome was as tragic as it was predictable; the poor man was cut to pieces. Thompson’s Badly Planned Attack, 1820. Thompson went to Qishm island, picked up six companies of the 1/2nd Bombay Regiment and their 8 guns, and sailed down the Gulf of Oman to Sur where he was reinforced by 2,000 men from the army of the Imam of Muscat. From there he marched 60 miles to Balad Beni Boo Ali (Place of the Sons of Ali). But they found themselves heavily outnumbered and Thompson’s lack of strategy was severely punished. They lost the 8 guns, and 270 were killed, including six British officers. The survivors retreated to the coast and went back to Qishm. Major-General Smith’s Campaign, 1821 The grenadier companies of the 2/2nd Regiment Bombay NI were ordered to Bombay where a force was being assembled under Major-General Lionel Smith, an experienced Gulf campaigner. There was one British regiment, the 65th (2nd Yorks, later the York & Lancs) with a strength of 460 men. They were brigaded with the 1/7th Bombay NI who in 1824 were designated 13th Bombay NI (113th Infantry in 1903). The rest were Bombay units including the 1st European Regiment (103rd Royal Bombay Fusiliers, in 1881 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers) . One battalion was made up of the grenadier companies of four Native Infantry battalions, one of which was the 2/2nd NI. There was also 1st Troop of Bombay Horse Artillery Battery with 12-pounders, and 2nd Bombay Foot Artillery with two 18-pounders. The grenadiers of the 2/2nd embarked at Malwan on 19 Dec 1820, arriving at Bombay on 24 Dec. The whole force left Bombay on 11 Jan 1821 and sailed to Sur, arriving on 27 Jan, where they were provided with camels and troops by the Imam of Muscat. They marched to a camp 2 miles inland. Attack on the Camp, 10 Feb 1821 On the night of 9/10 Feb the camp was attacked by 500 tribesmen from the Beni Boo Ali. The attack took the force by surprise as the piquets had been ordered to carry unloaded muskets to avoid false alarms. The Bombay European Regiment was the worst hit in this attack, losing one officer, Captain Parr, and 9 men killed, as well as their bhisti. But the enemy, who were armed with spears and heavy swords, were beaten off, losing 12 killed and 20 wounded. The 2/2nd NI grenadiers had been relocated to join the 1/2nd, the battalion that had been posted to Qishm and was part of Thompson’s expedition. This battalion lost 3 men killed and 6 wounded in the attack. The camels had been scattered and it took several days to collect them all. Belad Beni Boo Ali, 2 Mar 1821 The force of British, Indian and Omani troops needed to move quickly so that the Beni Boo Ali would not have too much time to prepare for an attack. To this end the tents were left behind, as well as the 18-pounder guns, and the men put on reduced rations. The march was through difficult country with very little water, and the men suffered greatly. They reached the fortified town of Belad Beni Boo Ali on 2 Mar 1821. Shots were fired from the town but the battle took place near a grove of date palms two miles away. Arabs occupied a defensive position there and the 2nd Brigade were ordered to attack. This brigade contained the 65th and the 1/7th Bombay NI. Their light companies were in front with the 65th behind and the 1/7th at the rear. Two Horse Artillery 6-pounders were placed, one on each flank. As they approached, the Arabs suddenly rushed out of the palm grove and, even though they were under fire, managed to get between the two regiments. The 65th Regiment turned about, fired on them and charged with the bayonet, while the 1/7th NI fought them off, and the guns fired grapeshot at them. This phase of the battle lasted 15 minutes during which the tribesmen lost about 200 killed. The casualties of Smith’s force were 201 killed or wounded, nearly all of which belonged to the 65th or the 1/7th NI. The grenadier companies of the 2/2nd had no casualties. The main stronghold of the Beni Boo Ali was the next objective and as the two brigades prepared for a siege a white flag was seen to be hoisted on the walls, but they were not prepared to give up their weapons, so the guns were brought up to batter the walls for an assault by the 1st Brigade , which contained the grenadiers of the 2/2nd NI. However, the Arabs were reported to be escaping from the rear of the fort, so men were sent round to intercept them. They arrested 236 prisoners of which 96 were wounded. The chief, Mahomed bin Ali and his brother, Kadeem bin Ali were both amongst the wounded prisoners. The guns that had been captured from Captain Thompson’s failed attack the previous year, were retrieved. The battle honour BENI BOO ALLI was authorised on 11 Feb 1831.
Not being a formal colony or protectorate, Britain’s involvement with Oman was a very subtle one, but nonetheless powerful for all that. A combination of a political consul at the Omani court in Muscat and the presence of the Royal Navy based in Bushire and ships constantly to-ing and fro-ing between Europe and India, meant that effective political control was never seriously doubted. To illustrate the power the British could exert over the Al-Bu Sa’id leaders, you only have to look at how Britain effectively enforced its own anti-slavery policy on the Omani leaders and traders. From the second half of the Nineteenth Century, this helped the Omani economy into an economic slump that was further compounded by political events after the death of Sa’id Ibn Sultan in 1856. In the subsequent succession crisis the British effectively split the Omani empire into two; one based on Muscat and the other on Zanzibar. This further weakened the Omani economy and ruling family. Perversely, this weakening of the country, actually made the ruling family more dependent upon the British for their existence. The British, therefore, provided successive Sultans with political and military support to keep them in position. From the middle of the Eighteenth Century, the regular British army provided most of the officers and training for the Omani armed forces. The first occasion that the British were required to maintain the regime was after the death of Sultan Faisal Bin Turki in 1913. With no clear line of succession in Arab families, succession crises became a common occurence throughout the Middle East. On this occasion, tribes from the interior went so far as to attempt to sack Muscat. It was only the presence of British troops and officers that prevented the regime from being overthrown. An uneasy truce was called into existence between the Sultan, whose powerbase lay on the coast, and the Imam, who claimed to rule the interior tribes. The British would also be called upon to prevent Ibn Saud from exerting too much influence and power in the Omani realms as he swept victoriously through the remains of the Ottoman Empire at the end of The Great War. As the principle financial backers of Ibn Saud, they could make sure that he did not get too carried away with his successes and try to take control of large areas of Oman. However, borders in the desert were difficult to police and agree upon, a fact that would come back to haunt the British and the Omani leaders when oil raised the political stakes in the region in the 1950’s. The Buraimi crisis in the 1950’s was a complex series of political loyalties and strategic imperatives that pitted the Omani regime and the British against the Saudis and tribes from the interior. It demonstrated how, even in a period as late as the 1950’s, the British could still exert decisive political and military action in the area. In return for oil concessions, the British provided Sultan Said Ibn Taimur with the necessary political and military support to eject the Saudis and to destroy the powerbase of the interior tribes once and for all. Yet again, the ability of a weak regime to call upon British support allowed it to continue in existence when many lesser regimes would have fallen by the wayside. Oman was never a formal British colony, but the extent of its dependence upon the British certainly made it seem as if it was. Indeed, Sultan Said was such an anglophile that he came to depend on the British (and a few local trading families) to what was perhaps a dangerously unhealthy degree and one that resulted in political and economic stagnation for the country. So much so, that even the British were concerned for the political future of this country and it is possible that they were instrumental in securing a bloodless coup that allowed Sultan Qaboos (Said’s son) to come to power in 1970. Britain has always denied any involvement, but this seems unlikely given that the army was mostly commanded by British officers at the time.
Role within the Empire
Oman was primarily a commercial staging post between Europe and the Indian sub-continent. It was also at the center of a dynamic regional trading hub that connected India, the Middle East and East Africa. Shipping companies and businesses were content to work in the relatively peaceful framework of the Omani empire of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Ships from the British Indian Navy would regularly call on the ports of Oman on their way to and from Europe or as part of anti-piracy or slavery drives. As European ships improved in technology and as the British developed alternative naval facilities in Aden and at Suez, the importance of Oman began to wane. This was further compounded by the curtailment of the slave trade and the stripping of the Zanzibari possessions from Muscat. Oman slipped in economic and strategic importance until the discovery of oil in the region in the 1940’s and 50’s. This reinvigorated Britain’s interest in the area and ensured that the British would try to maintain strong diplomatic, military and political relations with the regime.
Withdrawal from Empire
In 1968, the British announced that they would formally withdraw from the Gulf region by the year 1971. However, the strong, and technically informal, relationship that Britain held with Oman meant that the abondonment was not as sudden or as precipitate as it was with the other Gulf countries. This is perhaps best illustrated by the extent that they helped establish Sultan Qaboos as the leader of the country. They also provided troops to help suppress the Dhofar rebellion in the years 1973 to 1976. Britain’s relative decline in international terms has meant that its power has been reduced somewhat, but perhaps more than with any other country the British have maintained an uncommonly strong relationship with the country of Oman.


Maps of Oman 1660 Map of the Middle East 1765 Map of the Middle East Imperial era flag of Oman Images of Imperial Oman Historic Oman Images Articles Britain’s Arabian Oil Empire David Holden gives an account of how Britain’s involvement in the Middle East mutated from a Nineteenth Century concern about security of maritime trade routes and the defence of India into a Twentieth Century preoccupation of guarding the flow of oil and attempts to contain rising nationalist aspirations in the region. Timeline


1507 Portugese occupy Oman 1646 Signs Treaty with British East India Company 1650 Expulsion of Portugese 1749 Ahmed Bin Said becomes the first Al-Busaid imam 1786 Muscat becomes capital city Al-Busaids take title of Sultan 1798 Treaty with British government 1800 Treaty of Protection with British government 1842 Omani empire divided into two: Zanzibar is split from Muscat and Oman 1891 Treaty of Peace, friendship and navigation with Britain 1913 Death of Sultan Turki results in tribal unrest 1915 Interior tribes ride on Muscat, repelled by British 1920 Sultan and Imam sign treaty at Seeb 1939 Treaty of Peace, friendship and navigation with Britain 1951 Treaty of Peace, friendship and navigation with Britain 1952 Saudis ejected from Buraimi oasis by British and Omanis. 1955 – 59 Power of Imamate curbed in the interior by joint Sultan and British action

table> Rulers of Oman Ahmed Bin Said 1744 – 1783 Said 1783 Hamad 1784 – 1792 Sayyid Sultan bin Ahmed 1792 – 1804 Sa’id Ibn Sultan 1807 – 1856 Ibn Sa’id 1856 -1868 – 1868 -1873 – 1873 -1888 Faisal Ibn Turki 1888 – 1913 Taimur Ibn Faisal 1913 – 1932 Said Ibn Taimur 1932 – 1970 Qabus Ibn Said 1970 – Articles The Sultanate of Oman: A Forgotten Empire Suggested Reading The Ottoman Gulf by Frederick Anscombe An Imperial Twilight by Sir Gawain Bell Oman Since 1856 by Robert Geran Landen Oman in the Twentieth Century: Political Foundations of an Emerging State by J Peterson Oman a History by Wendell Phillips Oman & Muscat: an early modern history by Patricia A. Risso The Making of the Modern Gulf States: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman by Rosemarie Said Zahlan

Who founded the UAE?

External connections –

  • Farewell Arabia, which was released in 1968, focuses on Zayed and the oil industry in Abu Dhabi.
  • Website belonging to Sheikh Zayed
  • Zayid bin Sultan Al Nahyan, Director General of Cooperative Research and Development
  • A homage from the UAE officially paid to Sheikh Zayed.
  • In the London School of Economics, the Sheikh Zayed lecture theatre may be found.
Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan House of Al Nahyan Born: 1918 Died: 2 November 2004
Regnal titles
Preceded by Shakhbut Bin-Sultan Al Nahyan Ruler of Abu Dhabi 6 August 1966 – 2 November 2004 Succeeded by Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Political offices
Preceded by Post Created President of the United Arab Emirates 2 December 1971 – 2 November 2004 Succeeded by Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan

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